Napoleon (15 Aug 1769 – 5 May 1821) was in Paris during the French revolution, and when France became a Republic on 10 August 1792, he was promoted to the rank of Captain. After defeating the Italian armies in 1796 and the Austrians in 1797, he was made General. In November 1799, he overthrew the French Directory to become First Consul of the government. He called himself Napoleon I. In 1804, a 12 years after the monarchy was disposed of in the French Revolution, Napoleon secured a vote to change France from a consulate to an empire. Napoleon became Emperor of France. By 1812, Napoleon had wiped out the last traces of the Holy Roman Empire and conquered most of Europe. But after a disastrous battle against Russia, his enemies struck back. On March 18, 1814, the allies marched into Paris. Napoleon abdicated on April 6, 1814. Napoleon was sent into exile on Elba, a tiny island off the coast of Italy. In March 1815, he escaped and marched toward Paris with thousands of his old guard. For a brief time, known as the Hundred Days, Napoleon returned to his former glory. He was finally defeated by a combined English and Prussian force on June 18, 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium.